The Curse of Mummy-Mania: Patrons Help Unravel a Mystery Wrapped in an Enigma

Mummy Mania is not exactly a scientific term – but it accurately describes the Egyptian history craze that swept Europe after the discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799 (which allowed for the translation of Hieroglyphics). In the rush to supply the Egypt-a-philic art collectors and museums that popped up on the continent, tombs were ransacked and ruins were exploited. Tourists swarmed the pyramids and every visitor to Egypt wanted to come home with a genuine mummy – correspondingly, there was a booming market for forgeries.

Napoleon in Egypt Studying a Mummy, Print by E. Fiorello

Napoleon in Egypt Studying a Mummy, Print by E. Fiorello

Forgeries of mummies are nothing new – researchers say that there were faux mummies even in the time of the Pharaohs and even more when high demand when during the Middle Ages through the Renaissance they were ground up used as a powder for apothecary potions. Often smaller mummies – “mummiettes” (child or animal mummies) made the best fakes, which held, deep underneath ancient bandages, contemporary bird bones or sometimes nothing at all.

Examples of apothecary potions

Examples of apothecary potions

Two of these fake mummies were the objects of study at the most recent Vatican restorers conference held on January 22, 2015. Professor Antonio Paolucci, director of the Vatican Museums, provided an introduction and Alessia Amenta, curator of the Department of Egyptian Antiquities and the Near East followed up with analysis along with Ulderico Santamaria, head of the Laboratory of Diagnostic for the Conservation and Restoration of the Vatican Museums with his colleagues Fabio Morresi and SvevaLongo. In the curious cases of these mummies, the forgeries and techniques used to discover them were just as interesting as if they found the real things.

A Case of "Mummy-Mania" Conference including speakers: Fabio Morresi, Alessia Amenta, Antonio Paolucci, Ulderico Santamaria, and Svevo Longo (from left to right)

A Case of “Mummy-Mania” Conference including speakers: Fabio Morresi, Alessia Amenta, Antonio Paolucci, Ulderico Santamaria, and Svevo Longo (from left to right)

Thanks to the California patrons who supported this project, (particularly Juliann and Michael O’Connor) our labs were able to use X-ray fluorescence and electron microscopes to discover the chemical elements of materials, and infrared and ultraviolet analyses revealed colors and images hidden to the naked eye. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified the presence of organic compounds and the project was topped off with CT-scans to create 3D images of the contents.  These analyses revealed the presence of zinc and tin in the paints and a metal laminate used to create false aging. Then “multiplanar reconstruction” of hundreds of CT-scan images pieced together revealed a 19th century nail that could not have been seen on the initial X-ray. Also, with carbon dating, restorers found that the bones wrapped inside were actually adult bones from the middle ages.

Fig. 3

Fake Mummy Undergoing “TAC” restoration © Musei Vaticani

The way these forgeries were crafted has been at least as much of a mystery as the riddle of true ancient Mummies. The conference on January 22, 2015 not only revealed strides in how to identify fakes, but also sparked discussion on the merit of these forgeries as works of historical record and even pieces of genuine 19th century artistic ingenuity.

“The Mummy Project” is an ongoing one at the Vatican which boasts a truly impressive collection of genuine mummies some of which have had the benefit of restoration due to our generous patrons.

For more on the Mummy Mania conference:

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Photo of Child Mummy Before Restoration © Vatican Museums

Photo of Child Mummy Before Restoration © Vatican Museums

Fake Mummy, Inv. 5783 © Musei Vaticani

Fake Mummy, Inv. 5783, before restoration © Musei Vaticani

Wrapping Up Another Restoration: Vatican Mummy Project

Thanks to the generosity of Cecil and Susan Hawkins of the Canadian Chapter, the Vatican Museums is proud to announce that the conservation of the Mummy of an Unknown Man has been completed. The mummy was in dire need of preservation due to degraded bandages and evidence of infestation. However, due to the hard work of Dr. Alessia Amenta and her team, the mummy has now been preserved for future generations.

Before the work began on the project, the Egyptian department knew that the mummy was a male likely between the ages of 35 and 50. The corpse was completely wrapped in bandages except for his face and two toes. This uncovering was likely due to inappropriate handling during the original excavation in the late 19th century.  This mishandling was perhaps due to thieves trying to steal amulets that the Egyptians would place between the bandages for protection.

This mummy was the second in a series of seven that are yet to be preserved. This ‘Vatican Mummy Project’ will not only ensure the conservation of these artifacts, but it is also leading to new discoveries! During the work on this mummy the team found two platforms located directly between the should blades. These beams, of unknown substance, would have supported the corpse while the doctors performed the embalming process, which is something Egyptians felt was necessary to ensure a safe travel to the afterlife. The restorers were also able to identify twelve bandages, four shrouds, and three different textile types. These discoveries are not only helping to better inform the Vatican Museums, but are enabling a better understanding of these people and their burial rituals throughout the scholarly community.

Next time you visit the Vatican Museums, make sure to stop through the Egyptian Galleries and say hello to one of the mummies on display. Whether you see them before or after they go to the labs for preservation, they are truly one of the most unforgettable parts of the Vatican Museums!



The Mummy before his restoration


The skull uncovered during the restoration process


The bandages after their cleaning